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describe the various types of nonsurgical periodontal therapy

Figure 1: Pre-treatment radiographs. Irvine, San Juan Capistrano, San Clemente, Mission Viejo, & Orange County CA. Selective polishing is choosing the surfaces to polish on the basis of patient concerns and the presence of plaque biofilm and stains that cannot be removed with normal patient oral hygiene practices. A detailed plan for non-surgical periodontal therapy will always include minimizing the impact of local environmental risk factors.. C. goal 3: to minimize exposure of the systemic factors for periodontal disease 1. These reasons are. diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases. Air powder polishing is especially effective with severe staining, such as that found in cigarette and pipe smokers. It was once thought that tooth surfaces had to be plaque-free to absorb fluoride during fluoride treatments, so polishing of teeth was performed routinely before office fluoride applications. Nonsurgical therapy includes the procedures listed in. Clearly, this requires clinical experience and judgment on the part of the dental hygienist. After instrumentation, some roots feel smooth, whereas others have varying degrees of granular roughness. However, in periodontology, the term, In its broadest sense, nonsurgical therapy defines all of the procedures performed to treat gingival and periodontal diseases up to the time of reevaluation, which is when patients begin maintenance care and the need for periodontal surgery to enhance results is determined. Nyman and colleagues20 compared these treatment strategies by testing the healing of quadrants after periodontal surgery. Cortney Annese, RDH, says attention to detail, patient compliance, and proper selection of adjunctive antimicrobial agents for sustained plaque control are important elements in achieving successful long-term results. ... Schwarz F, Aoki A, Becker J, Sculean A. Laser application in non-surgical periodontal therapy: A systematic review. These are the procedures and instruments required to scale, root-plane, and debride the tooth surfaces of bacterial plaque biofilms and calculus and to remove stains by the application of polishing techniques. Because this system produces an extensive aerosol, it is contraindicated in patients with infectious diseases, respiratory illnesses, hypertension, or those who are on hemodialysis. 4. Your periodontist is best trained to determine if this treatment approach will help your specific condition. In these instances, root planing, commonly referred to as “deep cleanings”, becomes necessary. “Root planing” involves cleaning plaque from below the gum line that is most often the culprits in periodontal disease. The technical skill of the dental hygienist is the critical element in successful nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Gingival curettage is thus considered to have little therapeutic value in the treatment of chronic periodontitis and is no longer listed as a method of treatment by the American Dental Association and the AAP.12. Inflamed pocket lining is composed of thin ulcerated strands of epithelium, with rete pegs extending into the underlying connective tissue and granulation tissue containing disorganized masses of cells. Duration: 55:30. The goal of root planing, leaving the roots clean, has not changed, but the extent to which root tissue is scraped away to create a glassy, hard texture has been under scrutiny. If the long-term goal of restoring periodontal health has not been achieved after conscientious nonsurgical therapy, the dental hygienist must first suspect residual calculus (and plaque biofilm) and re-treat nonresponding areas. Periodontal disease is a common gum inflammation that affects 3 out of 4 adults, but it can be prevented or treated with regular periodontal exams. The bacterial plaque shifts from predominantly gram-negative microbiota to one that is gram-positive, with many fewer motile forms, especially spirochetes. In fact, in some studies, gingivae next to root surfaces that were notched for orientation of researchers after tooth extraction healed uneventfully in the mouth. This end point is best evaluated by explorer detection of smooth surfaces.3 Calculus removal may be considered a subgoal rather than the primary focus.3 The goal at the treatment visit is not to render the roots glassy and hard through extensive planing away of tooth structure. It is now known that the presence of plaque biofilms does not interfere with the uptake of fluoride by tooth structures. The rationale for nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to remove the etiologic agent of disease—bacterial plaque biofilm—and its associated factors. Calculus adheres to tooth surfaces through pellicular attachment, mechanical locking, and intercrystalline forces. These products are not effective as standalone treatment and are also not effective for long term control of advanced periodontal disease or with patients who have chronically deep gum pockets. Selective polishing is choosing the surfaces to polish on the basis of patient concerns and the presence of plaque biofilm and stains that cannot be removed with normal patient oral hygiene practices. This rationale has been questioned for many years and the procedure is no longer considered standard treatment.21,22. Non-Surgical Treatment. Scaling and root planing is the standard of care for nonsurgical and nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic periodontal diseases. Providing information about performing effective plaque biofilm control is more valuable than performing what is primarily a cosmetic procedure. The diode laser in nonsurgical cause-related periodontal therapy 5. Supragingival oral hygiene procedures have limited effects on symptoms associated with deeper pockets, such as bleeding on probing. Most importantly, no surfaces should feel rough, as if calculus is still present. J Clin Periodontol. A number of dental hygiene programs in the United States teach gingival curettage because it is a legally sanctioned duty in many states and may be performed by practitioners in the community.24 In this era of increased emphasis on nonsurgical therapies, removal of disorganized granulation tissue and ulcerated epithelium from pocket linings remains appealing to many clinicians, even if data do not show improved healing. Convincing experimental evidence that plaque microorganisms cause human gingival disease was presented by Löe and colleagues in 1965.14 The researchers initiated extensive plaque control in a small group of dental students and brought them to a level of excellent periodontal health; then the subjects refrained from oral hygiene procedures for 3 weeks. Inflamed pocket lining is composed of thin ulcerated strands of epithelium, with rete pegs extending into the underlying connective tissue and granulation tissue containing disorganized masses of cells. Non-surgical periodontal treatment does have its limitations. The definitions of procedures must be clear and consistent. Scaling may be accomplished with sharp hand instruments or with sonic or ultrasonic instrumentation using powered scaling devices. • Smooth surfaces promote gingival healing. It commonly occurs during nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Email: Implant Dentist Dr. Caplanis your Mission Viejo Periodontist and Orange County Periodontist provides a full range of dental implant & periodontal services including dental implants, The American Dental Association states that the treatment is aimed to prevent further advancement of the disease, and it is a lifelong plan for treatment. nonsurgical coverage of recession-type defects, treatment of suprabony defects and papilla reconstruction techniques. The repeated removal of tooth structure during nonsurgical therapy appointments and subsequent maintenance visits is not a goal of therapy, and it may result in thinned and sensitive root surfaces. Scaling and root planing are a basic approach to effectively treating the disease and allowing the gums and surrounding bone to heal properly. During periodontal debridement procedures, the goal for the dental hygienist is to promote plaque biofilm control and instrument the tooth surfaces until they are clean and smooth, touching all portions of the roots to disrupt plaque biofilm and remove calculus. Periodontists are also experts in replacing missing teeth with dental implants. Scaling and periodontal debridement are effective in reducing the volume of plaque biofilm bacteria in treated sites. This chapter discusses the biologic basis and rationale for nonsurgical therapeutic procedures performed in the dental office. It appears that variation in smoothness is acceptable as long as calculus that makes surfaces feel rough and irregular has been removed and plaque biofilm has been disrupted. Air powder polishing is especially effective with severe staining, such as that found in cigarette and pipe smokers. Healing of inflamed connective tissue is complex, requiring many cells and mediators. Laser periodontal therapy should never be considered as a substitute for conventional non surgical therapy or as a replacement for periodontal surgery. Non-Surgical Perio Therapy with Adjunctive Agents. Root roughness has been equated with incomplete instrumentation because of concerns that endotoxins (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) formed by gram-negative bacteria invade the root structure. When treating gum disease, it is often best to begin with a non-surgical approach consisting of one or more of the following: Scaling and Root Planing. Nyman and colleagues, These data indicate that toxins are superficially located on root surfaces and easily removed. In its broadest sense, nonsurgical therapy defines all of the procedures performed to treat gingival and periodontal diseases up to the time of reevaluation, which is when patients begin maintenance care and the need for periodontal surgery to enhance results is determined. It describes. A study published in the 1980s compared the performance of hand instruments with that of ultrasonic tips in the removal of plaque in pockets. When the junctional epithelium has been injured or separated from the tooth surfaces, as it would be during periodontal debridement, healing can be expected to take approximately 1 week. There is no evidence that root-planed teeth are easier to maintain or less likely to be associated with periodontal diseases than those that have simply been rendered free of calculus and plaque biofilm. The bacterial plaque shifts from predominantly gram-negative microbiota to one that is gram-positive, with many fewer motile forms, especially spirochetes. Curettage had been defined by the AAP as scraping or cleaning the walls of a cavity or surface by means of a curette.12 It is a commonly misused term, often applied to a variety of procedures from removal of the pocket lining, termed closed curettage, to a surgical flap procedure called open curettage. Inflammation and tissue destruction in conventionally raised animals with oral biota are vastly more widespread and severe. If periodontal disease has progressed to the point where gum tissue no longer fits snugly against the teeth, minor gum surgery may be needed. Replacement restorations or orthodontic movement of the teeth can simplify plaque biofilm control and help the patient achieve periodontal health. It is defined as the removal of the inflamed soft tissue lateral to the pocket wall. Patient plaque biofilm control is a cornerstone of long-term successful therapy. The goal of root planing, leaving the roots clean, has not changed, but the extent to which root tissue is scraped away to create a glassy, hard texture has been under scrutiny. The definitions of procedures must be clear and consistent. An important goal in the treatment of gum disease is to rid the teeth and gums of pathogenic bacteria and the toxins they produce, which may become incorporated into the root surface of the teeth.

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